The Git Command Requires The Command Line Developer Tools Mac

  

Then git commit is used to create a snapshot of the staged changes along a timeline of a Git projects history. Learn more about git add usage on the accompanying page. The git status command can be used to explore the state of the staging area and pending commit. The commit model of SVN and Git are significantly different but often confused. Git’s basic development workflow is much different. Instead of being bound to a single line of development (e.g., trunk/), life revolves around branching and merging. When you want to start working on anything in Git, you create and check out a new branch with git checkout -b. This gives you a dedicated line of development where you can. 15:49 Improve Object Detection models in Create ML. Tech Talks; iOS, macOS; When you train custom Core ML models for object detection in Create ML, you can bring image understanding to your app. Discover how transfer learning allows you to build smaller models with less training data.

Start using Git on the command line. Git is an open-source distributed version control system. GitLab is built on top of Git. You can do many Git operations directly in GitLab. However, the command line is required for advanced tasks, like fixing complex merge conflicts or rolling back commits. TurboTax for Mac 2018 fails. I receive this message: the'lldb' command requires the command line developer tools. Requires the command line developer tools.

The git commit command captures a snapshot of the project's currently staged changes. Committed snapshots can be thought of as “safe” versions of a project—Git will never change them unless you explicitly ask it to. Prior to the execution of git commit, The git add command is used to promote or 'stage' changes to the project that will be stored in a commit. These two commands git commit and git add are two of the most frequently used.

Git commit vs SVN commit

While they share the same name, git commit is nothing like svn commit. This shared term can be a point of confusion for Git newcomers who have a svn background, and it is important to emphasize the difference. To compare git commit vs svn commit is to compare a centralized application model (svn) vs a distributed application model (Git). In SVN, a commit pushes changes from the local SVN client, to a remote centralized shared SVN repository. In Git, repositories are distributed, Snapshots are committed to the local repository, and this requires absolutely no interaction with other Git repositories. Git commits can later be pushed to arbitrary remote repositories.

How it works

At a high-level, Git can be thought of as a timeline management utility. Commits are the core building block units of a Git project timeline. Commits can be thought of as snapshots or milestones along the timeline of a Git project. Commits are created with the git commit command to capture the state of a project at that point in time. Git Snapshots are always committed to the local repository. This is fundamentally different from SVN, wherein the working copy is committed to the central repository. In contrast, Git doesn’t force you to interact with the central repository until you’re ready. Just as the staging area is a buffer between the working directory and the project history, each developer’s local repository is a buffer between their contributions and the central repository.

This changes the basic development model for Git users. Instead of making a change and committing it directly to the central repo, Git developers have the opportunity to accumulate commits in their local repo. This has many advantages over SVN-style collaboration: it makes it easier to split up a feature into atomic commits, keep related commits grouped together, and clean up local history before publishing it to the central repository. It also lets developers work in an isolated environment, deferring integration until they’re at a convenient point to merge with other users. While isolation and deferred integration are individually beneficial, it is in a team's best interest to integrate frequently and in small units. For more information regarding best practices for Git team collaboration read how teams structure their Git workflow.

Snapshots, not differences

Aside from the practical distinctions between SVN and Git, their underlying implementation also follows entirely divergent design philosophies. Whereas SVN tracks differences of a file, Git’s version control model is based on snapshots. For example, a SVN commit consists of a diff compared to the original file added to the repository. Git, on the other hand, records the entire contents of each file in every commit.

This makes many Git operations much faster than SVN, since a particular version of a file doesn’t have to be “assembled” from its diffs—the complete revision of each file is immediately available from Git's internal database.

Git's snapshot model has a far-reaching impact on virtually every aspect of its version control model, affecting everything from its branching and merging tools to its collaboration work-flows.

Common options

Commit the staged snapshot. This will launch a text editor prompting you for a commit message. After you’ve entered a message, save the file and close the editor to create the actual commit.

Commit a snapshot of all changes in the working directory. This only includes modifications to tracked files (those that have been added with git add at some point in their history).

A shortcut command that immediately creates a commit with a passed commit message. By default, git commit will open up the locally configured text editor, and prompt for a commit message to be entered. Passing the -m option will forgo the text editor prompt in-favor of an inline message.

A power user shortcut command that combines the -a and -m options. This combination immediately creates a commit of all the staged changes and takes an inline commit message.

This option adds another level of functionality to the commit command. Passing this option will modify the last commit. Instead of creating a new commit, staged changes will be added to the previous commit. This command will open up the system's configured text editor and prompt to change the previously specified commit message.

Examples

Saving changes with a commit

The following example assumes you’ve edited some content in a file called hello.py on the current branch, and are ready to commit it to the project history. First, you need to stage the file with git add, then you can commit the staged snapshot.

This command will add hello.py to the Git staging area. We can examine the result of this action by using the git status command.

The green output new file: hello.py indicates that hello.py will be saved with the next commit. From the commit is created by executing:

This will open a text editor (customizable via git config) asking for a commit log message, along with a list of what’s being committed:

Git doesn't require commit messages to follow any specific formatting constraints, but the canonical format is to summarize the entire commit on the first line in less than 50 characters, leave a blank line, then a detailed explanation of what’s been changed. For example:

It is a common practice to use the first line of the commit message as a subject line, similar to an email. The rest of the log message is considered the body and used to communicate details of the commit change set. Note that many developers also like to use the present tense in their commit messages. This makes them read more like actions on the repository, which makes many of the history-rewriting operations more intuitive.

How to update (amend) a commit

To continue with the hello.py example above. Let's make further updates to hello.py and execute the following:

This will once again, open up the configured text editor. This time, however, it will be pre-filled with the commit message we previously entered. This indicates that we are not creating a new commit, but editing the last.

Summary

The git commit command is one of the core primary functions of Git. Prior use of the git add command is required to select the changes that will be staged for the next commit. Then git commit is used to create a snapshot of the staged changes along a timeline of a Git projects history. Learn more about git addusage on the accompanying page. The git status command can be used to explore the state of the staging area and pending commit.

The commit model of SVN and Git are significantly different but often confused, because of the shared terminology. If you are coming to Git from a personal history of SVN usage, it is good to learn that in Git, commits are cheap and should be used frequently. Whereas SVN commits are an expensive operation that makes a remote request, Git commits are done locally and with a more efficient algorithm.

  • Get the Flutter SDK
  • iOS setup
  • Android setup

System requirements

To install and run Flutter,your development environment must meet these minimum requirements:

  • Operating Systems: macOS (64-bit)
  • Disk Space: 2.8 GB (does not include disk space for IDE/tools).
  • Tools: Flutter uses git for installation and upgrade. We recommendinstalling Xcode, which includes git, but you can also install git separately.

Important: If you’re installing on a Mac with the latest Apple M1 processor, you may find these supplementary notes useful reading as we complete support for the new Apple Silicon architecture.

The Git Command Requires The Command Line Developer Tools Machines

Get the Flutter SDK

  1. Download the following installation bundle to get the lateststable release of the Flutter SDK:

    For other release channels, and older builds,see the SDK releases page.

  2. Extract the file in the desired location, for example:

  3. Add the flutter tool to your path:

    This command sets your PATH variable for thecurrent terminal window only.To permanently add Flutter to your path, seeUpdate your path.

You are now ready to run Flutter commands!

Note: To update an existing version of Flutter, see Upgrading Flutter.

Run flutter doctor

Run the following command to see if there are any dependencies you need toinstall to complete the setup (for verbose output, add the -v flag):

Git

This command checks your environment and displays a report to the terminalwindow. The Dart SDK is bundled with Flutter; it is not necessary to installDart separately. Check the output carefully for other software you mightneed to install or further tasks to perform (shown in bold text).

For example:

The following sections describe how to perform these tasks and finish the setupprocess.

Once you have installed any missing dependencies, run the flutter doctorcommand again to verify that you’ve set everything up correctly.

Downloading straight from GitHub instead of using an archive

This is only suggested for advanced use cases.

You can also use git directly instead of downloading the prepared archive. For example,to download the stable branch:

Update your path, and run flutter doctor. That will let you know if there areother dependencies you need to install to use Flutter (e.g. the Android SDK).

If you did not use the archive, Flutter will download necessary development binaries as theyare needed (if you used the archive, they are included in the download). You may wish topre-download these development binaries (for example, you may wish to do this when settingup hermetic build environments, or if you only have intermittent network availability). Todo so, run the following command:

For additional download options, see flutter help precache.

Warning: The flutter tool uses Google Analytics to anonymously report feature usage statistics and basic crash reports. This data is used to help improve Flutter tools over time.

Flutter tool analytics are not sent on the very first run. To disable reporting, type flutter config --no-analytics. To display the current setting, type flutter config. If you opt out of analytics, an opt-out event is sent, and then no further information is sent by the Flutter tool.

By downloading the Flutter SDK, you agree to the Google Terms of Service. Note: The Google Privacy Policy describes how data is handled in this service.

Moreover, Flutter includes the Dart SDK, which may send usage metrics and crash reports to Google.

Update your path

You can update your PATH variable for the current session atthe command line, as shown in Get the Flutter SDK.You’ll probably want to update this variable permanently,so you can run flutter commands in any terminal session.

The steps for modifying this variable permanently forall terminal sessions are machine-specific.Typically you add a line to a file that is executedwhenever you open a new window. For example:

  1. Determine the path of your clone of the Flutter SDK.You need this in Step 3.
  2. Open (or create) the rc file for your shell.Typing echo $SHELL in your Terminal tells youwhich shell you’re using.If you’re using Bash,edit $HOME/.bash_profile or $HOME/.bashrc.If you’re using Z shell, edit $HOME/.zshrc.If you’re using a different shell, the file pathand filename will be different on your machine.
  3. Add the following line and change[PATH_OF_FLUTTER_GIT_DIRECTORY] to bethe path of your clone of the Flutter git repo:

  4. Run source $HOME/.<rc file>to refresh the current window,or open a new terminal window toautomatically source the file.
  5. Verify that the flutter/bin directoryis now in your PATH by running:

    Verify that the flutter command is available by running:

Command

Note: As of Flutter’s 1.19.0 dev release, the Flutter SDK contains the dart command alongside the flutter command so that you can more easily run Dart command-line programs. Downloading the Flutter SDK also downloads the compatible version of Dart, but if you’ve downloaded the Dart SDK separately, make sure that the Flutter version of dart is first in your path, as the two versions might not be compatible. The following command (on macOS, linux, and chrome OS), tells you whether the flutter and dart commands originate from the same bin directory and are therefore compatible. (Some versions of Windows support a similar where command.)

As shown above, the two commands don’t come from the same bin directory. Update your path to use commands from /path-to-flutter-sdk/bin before commands from /usr/local/bin (in this case). After updating your shell for the change to take effect, running the which or where command again should show that the flutter and dart commands now come from the same directory.

To learn more about the dart command, run dart -h from the command line, or see the dart tool page.

Platform setup

macOS supports developing Flutter apps in iOS, Android,and the web (technical preview release).Complete at least one of the platform setup steps now,to be able to build and run your first Flutter app.

iOS setup

Install Xcode

To develop Flutter apps for iOS, you need a Mac with Xcode installed.

  1. Install the latest stable version of Xcode(using web download or the Mac App Store).
  2. Configure the Xcode command-line tools to use thenewly-installed version of Xcode byrunning the following from the command line:

    This is the correct path for most cases,when you want to use the latest version of Xcode.If you need to use a different version,specify that path instead.

  3. Make sure the Xcode license agreement is signed byeither opening Xcode once and confirming or runningsudo xcodebuild -license from the command line.

Versions older than the latest stable version may still work,but are not recommended for Flutter development.Using old versions of Xcode to target bitcode is notsupported, and is likely not to work.

With Xcode, you’ll be able to run Flutter apps onan iOS device or on the simulator.

Set up the iOS simulator

To prepare to run and test your Flutter app on the iOS simulator,follow these steps:

  1. On your Mac, find the Simulator via Spotlight orby using the following command:

  2. Make sure your simulator is using a 64-bit device(iPhone 5s or later) by checking the settings inthe simulator’s Hardware > Device menu.
  3. Depending on your development machine’s screen size,simulated high-screen-density iOS devicesmight overflow your screen. Grab the corner of thesimulator and drag it to change the scale. You can alsouse the Window > Physical Size or Window > Pixel Accurateoptions if your computer’s resolution is high enough.
    • If you are using a version of Xcode olderthan 9.1, you should instead set the device scalein the Window > Scale menu.

Create and run a simple Flutter app

To create your first Flutter app and test your setup,follow these steps:

  1. Create a new Flutter app by running the following from thecommand line:

  2. A my_app directory is created, containing Flutter’s starter app.Enter this directory:

  3. To launch the app in the Simulator,ensure that the Simulator is running and enter:

Deploy to iOS devices

To deploy your Flutter app to a physical iOS deviceyou’ll need to set up physical device deployment in Xcodeand an Apple Developer account. If your app is using Flutter plugins,you will also need the third-party CocoaPods dependency manager.

  1. You can skip this step if your apps do not depend onFlutter plugins with native iOS code.Install and set up CocoaPods by running the following commands:

    Note: The default version of Ruby requires sudo to install the CocoaPods gem. If you are using a Ruby Version manager, you may need to run without sudo.

  2. Follow the Xcode signing flow to provision your project:

    1. Open the default Xcode workspace in your project byrunning open ios/Runner.xcworkspace in a terminalwindow from your Flutter project directory.
    2. Select the device you intend to deploy to in the devicedrop-down menu next to the run button.
    3. Select the Runner project in the left navigation panel.
    4. In the Runner target settings page,make sure your Development Team is selectedunder Signing & Capabilities > Team.

      When you select a team,Xcode creates and downloads a Development Certificate,registers your device with your account,and creates and downloads a provisioning profile (if needed).

      • To start your first iOS development project,you might need to sign intoXcode with your Apple ID. Development and testing is supported for any Apple ID.Enrolling in the Apple Developer Program is required todistribute your app to the App Store.For details about membership types,see Choosing a Membership.
      • The first time you use an attached physical device for iOSdevelopment, you need to trust both your Mac and theDevelopment Certificate on that device.Select Trust in the dialog prompt whenfirst connecting the iOS device to your Mac.

        Then, go to the Settings app on the iOS device,select General > Device Managementand trust your Certificate.For first time users, you may need to selectGeneral > Profiles > Device Management instead.

      • If automatic signing fails in Xcode, verify that the project’sGeneral > Identity > Bundle Identifier value is unique.

  3. Start your app by running flutter runor clicking the Run button in Xcode.

Android setup

Note: Flutter relies on a full installation of Android Studio to supply its Android platform dependencies. However, you can write your Flutter apps in a number of editors; a later step discusses that.

The Git Command Requires The Command Line Developer Tools Mac

The Git Command Requires The Command Line Developer Tools Macbook

Install Android Studio

  1. Download and install Android Studio.
  2. Start Android Studio, and go through the ‘Android Studio Setup Wizard’.This installs the latest Android SDK, Android SDK Command-line Tools,and Android SDK Build-Tools, which are required by Flutterwhen developing for Android.

Set up your Android device

To prepare to run and test your Flutter app on an Android device,you need an Android device running Android 4.1 (API level 16) or higher.

  1. Enable Developer options and USB debugging on your device.Detailed instructions are available in theAndroid documentation.
  2. Windows-only: Install the Google USBDriver.
  3. Using a USB cable, plug your phone into your computer. If prompted on yourdevice, authorize your computer to access your device.
  4. In the terminal, run the flutter devices command to verify thatFlutter recognizes your connected Android device. By default,Flutter uses the version of the Android SDK where your adbtool is based. If you want Flutter to use a different installationof the Android SDK, you must set the ANDROID_SDK_ROOT environmentvariable to that installation directory.

Set up the Android emulator

The Git Command Requires The Command Line Developer Tools Mac Os

The Git Command Requires The Command Line Developer Tools Mac Download

To prepare to run and test your Flutter app on the Android emulator,follow these steps:

  1. EnableVM accelerationon your machine.
  2. Launch Android Studio, click the AVD Managericon, and select Create Virtual Device…
    • In older versions of Android Studio, you should insteadlaunch Android Studio > Tools > Android > AVD Manager and selectCreate Virtual Device…. (The Android submenu is only presentwhen inside an Android project.)
    • If you do not have a project open, you can choose Configure > AVD Manager and select Create Virtual Device…
  3. Choose a device definition and select Next.
  4. Select one or more system images for the Android versions you wantto emulate, and select Next.An x86 or x86_64 image is recommended.
  5. Under Emulated Performance, select Hardware - GLES 2.0 to enablehardwareacceleration.
  6. Verify the AVD configuration is correct, and select Finish.

    For details on the above steps, see ManagingAVDs.

  7. In Android Virtual Device Manager, click Run in the toolbar.The emulator starts up and displays the default canvas for yourselected OS version and device.

Web setup

Flutter has support for building web applications in thestable channel. Any app created in Flutter 2 automaticallybuilds for the web. To add web support to an existing app, followthe instructions on Building a web application with Flutter when you’ve completed the setup above.

The Git Command Requires The Command Line Developer Tools Machinist

Next step

The Git Command Requires The Command Line Developer Tools Mac Download

Set up your preferred editor.

Mac users with macOS Mojave and macOS Catalina, and new operating systems in place can now install Command Line Tools from the Xcode IDE without needing to install the entire Xcode package, or opening an Apple developers account.

Did you know: Using Xcode app leaves behind a lot of junk files a.k.a. 'development junk.' These files are usually hidden from view but you can delete them with a Mac maintenance app CleanMyMac X.

In this article, we cover how you can install this optional and highly useful Command Line Tools package.

X code 11. Credit: developerinsider

What is the Xcode Command Line Tools package?

For Mac power users — we wouldn't recommend downloading this unless you are comfortable with Terminal — the Xcode Command Line Tools package gives you a complete Unix toolkit accessible through Terminal. No developer account needed and you don't need to download the entire — and quite large Xcode package of executables.

Within the Xcode Command Line toolkit, Mac users gain access to numerous useful tools, utilities, and compilers, including make, GCC, clang, perl, svn, git, size, strip, strings, libtool, cpp, and many others. All of these commands are a default part of Linux systems and programs.

We recommend following these steps for those with the following operating systems running on a Mac: macOS 10.13 High Sierra, macOS 10.14 Mojave, and macOS 10.15 Catalia onward. It isn't always possible to download these Xcode Command Line Tools, following these steps, on Mac’s running older operating systems. Other ways to install command tools and gcc (without needing Xcode) is available through the Apple Developer website.

Here is how you install Xcode Command Line Tools.

How to install Xcode Command Line Tools?

  1. Go to Terminal in /Applications/Utilities/.
  2. Input the following command string in Terminal: xcode-select —install
  3. In the same way when you are downloading new software and apps, a popup update window will appear asking you: “The xcode-select command requires the command line developer tools. Would you like to install the tools now?”
  4. Select confirm by clicking Install.
  5. Wait for the Xcode Command Line Tools package to install. It is around 130 MB and usually installs fairly quickly; although it depends on your connection.
  6. Once everything is installed, the installer goes away and you should be able to any of the new commands that you’ve now got access to. Enjoy using your new Unix command line tools!

Alternative way to install command line tools
If the Terminal combination didn't work, open the Finder > Go to Folder...menu.
Paste in the following path:/System/Library/CoreServices

In that location, find the app called Install Command Line Developer Tools.app — it will have a blue globe icon.
Click this app and then try the Terminal method explained above.

With this new download, you should have access to 61 Unix command line tools. For example, one of the advantages of having these tools is you can install new apps and software directly from the source code instead of needing to go through the package manager and usual download route.

To access or view everything you've now got, go to the following directory:

/Library/Developer/CommandLineTools/

Please note, this is the root /Library of your macOS/OS X, not the ~/Library directory.

The Git Command Requires The Command Line Developer Tools Macbook Pro

All of these tools can also be found in: /Library/Developer/CommandLineTools/usr/bin/

These tools like small executable apps (which they are):

The Git Command Requires The Command Line Developer Tools Macbook

What happens if I encounter problems downloading these?

If you get an error message that says “Can’t install the software because it is not currently available from the Software Update server”, it means you've already got the Xcode package on your Mac. Mac OS X 10.9 onward, Xcode was already installed, which is why you aren't able to download these tools. However, what you can do is uninstall the entire Xcode app if you'd prefer to only access these tools and not a whole load of software that isn’t going to be of much use.

Watch out for Xcode junk

The Xcode junk is one of those types of clutter that is keeps accumulating in remote places on your Mac. It could take up a few gigs of your space. The only app that seems to address this problem is CleanMyMac X by MacPaw. It’s loved by many Mac developers because it collects those specific types of development junk, like Xcode or outdated libraries.

Once you launch the app, click on System Junk > Scan. Then, click “Review Details”

CleanMyMac X is a powerful Mac performance improvement app. It makes your Mac as good as new. Let it scan your system and clear out any unwanted Xcode, development and system junk that is taking up too much space and cluttering up your Mac. In a few clicks, your Mac could be running smoother, quicker and more efficiently.