I want to add the PATH for mysql.exe on my Mac. I tried this via terminal, but $ vi.bashprofile vi.bashprofile command not found. I tried this for generating the bashprofile to. Open your Excel file and click Save As. Choose to save it as a.CSV (Comma Separated) file. If you are running Excel on a Mac, you will need to save the file as a Windows Comma Separated (.csv) or CSV (Windows) to maintain the correct formatting. Log into your MySQL shell and create a database. For this example the database will be named boatdb.
macOS Update: While these instructions still work, there are new posts for recent versions of macOS, the latest being Install Apache, PHP, and MySQL on macOS Mojave.
I have installed Apache, PHP, and MySQL on Mac OS X since Leopard. Each time doing so by hand. Each version of Mac OS X having some minor difference. This post serves as much for my own record as to outline how to install Apache, MySQL, and PHP for a local development environment on Mac OS X
Mountain Lion Mavericks.
I am aware of the several packages available, notably MAMP. These packages help get you started quickly. But they forego the learning experience and, as most developers report, eventually break. Personally, the choice to do it myself has proven invaluable.
It is important to remember Mac OS X runs atop UNIX. So all of these technologies install easily on Mac OS X. Furthermore, Apache and PHP are included by default. In the end, you only install MySQL then simply turn everything on.
First, open Terminal and switch to
root to avoid permission issues while running these commands.
Enable Apache on Mac OS X
Note: Prior to Mountain Lion this was an option for Web Sharing in System Preferences → Sharing.
Verify It works! by accessing http://localhost
Enable PHP for Apache
OS X Mavericks Update: You will need to rerun the steps in this section after upgrading an existing install to Mac OS X Mavericks.
First, make a backup of the default Apache configuration. This is good practice and serves as a comparison against future versions of Mac OS X.
Now edit the Apache configuration. Feel free to use TextEdit if you are not familiar with vi.
Uncomment the following line (remove
- Download the MySQL DMG for Mac OS X
- Install MySQL
- Install Preference Pane
- Open System Preferences → MySQL
- Ensure the MySQL Server is running
- Optionally, you can enable MySQL to start automatically. I do.
The README also suggests creating aliases for
mysqladmin. However there are other commands that are helpful such as
mysqldump. Instead, I updated my path to include
Note: You will need to open a new Terminal window or run the command above for your path to update.
I also run
mysql_secure_installation. While this isn't necessary, it's good practice.
Connect PHP and MySQL
You need to ensure PHP and MySQL can communicate with one another. There are several options to do so. I do the following:
You could stop here. PHP, MySQL, and Apache are all running. However, all of your sites would have URLs like http://localhost/somesite/ pointing to /Library/WebServer/Documents/somesite. Not ideal for a local development environment.
OS X Mavericks Update: You will need to rerun the steps below to uncomment the *vhost*
Include after upgrading an existing install to Mac OS X Mavericks.
To run sites individually you need to enable VirtualHosts. To do so, we'll edit the Apache Configuration again.
Uncomment the following line:
Now Apache will load httpd-vhosts.conf. Let's edit this file.
Here is an example of VirtualHosts I've created.
VirtualHost points to
/Library/WebServer/Documents. The first
VirtualHost is important as it behaves like the default Apache configuration and used when no others match.
VirtualHost points to my dev workspace and I can access it directly from http://jason.local. For ease of development, I also configured some custom logs.
Note: I use the extension local. This avoids conflicts with any real extensions and serves as a reminder I'm in my local environment.
In order to access http://jason.local, you need to edit your hosts file.
Add the following line to the bottom:
I run the following to clear the local DNS cache:
Now you can access http://jason.local.
Note: You will need to create a new
VirtualHost and edit your hosts file each time you make a new local site.
A note about permissions
You may receive 403 Forbidden when you visit your local site. This is likely a permissions issue. Simply put, the Apache user (
_www) needs to have access to read, and sometimes write, your web directory.
If you are not familiar with permissions, read more. For now though, the easiest thing to do is ensure your web directory has permissions of
755. You can change permissions with the command:
In my case, all my files were under my local
~/Documents directory. Which by default is only readable by me. So I had to change permissions for my web directory all the way up to
~/Documents to resolve the 403 Forbidden issue.
Note: There are many ways to solve permission issues. I have provided this as the easiest solution, not the best.
Unless you want to administer MySQL from the command line, I recommend installing PHPMyAdmin. I won't go into the details. Read the installation guide for more information. I install utility applications in the default directory. That way I can access them under, in this case, http://localhost/phpmyadmin.
A local development environment is a mandatory part of the Software Development Process. Given the ease at which you can install Apache, PHP, and MySQL on Mac OS X there really is no excuse.
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Get your Local Web Development Environment Up & Running on macOS Big Sur 11 and Catalina 10.15
With Apples' new macOS Big Sur 11 available for download, here is how to get the AMP stack up and running on the new macOS. This tutorial will go through the process of getting Apache, MySQL, PHP (or otherwise known as the 'AMP' stack) and phpMyAdmin running on the new mac OS Big Sur.
This guide will also work on macOS Catalina and Mojave.
This tutorial sets up the AMP stack in more of a traditional way using the loaded Apache and PHP and downloading MySQL and phpMyAdmin.
Setting Stuff Up
Web serving is built into Big Sur with Apache app, it is installed ready to be fired up.
This needs to be done in the Terminal which is found in the OS filing system at /Applications/Utilities/Terminal
For those not familiar with the Terminal, it really isn't as intimidating as you may think, once launched you are faced with a command prompt waiting for your commands - just type/paste in a command and hit enter, some commands give you no response - it just means the command is done, other commands give you feedback.
Using the prefix of sudo is required for commands that have their applications protected in specific folders - when using sudo you will need to confirm with your admin password or iCloud password if set up that way.... let's get to it ...
to start Apache web sharing
to stop it
to restart it
To find the Apache version
The Apache version that comes in macOS Big Sur is Apache/2.4.46
After starting Apache - test to see if the webserver is working in the browser - http://localhost - you should see the 'It Works!' text.
If you don't get the localhost test, you can try troubleshooting Apache to see if there is anything wrong in its config file by running
This will give you an indication of what might be wrong.
Document root is the location where the files are shared from the file system and is similar to the traditional names of 'public_html' and 'htdocs', macOS has historically had 2 web roots one at a system level and one at a user level - you can set both up or just run with one, the user level one allows multiple accounts to have their own web root whilst the system one is global for all users. It seems there is less effort from Apple in continuing with the user level one but it still can be set up with a couple of extra tweaks in configuration files. It is easier to use the user level one as you don't have to keep on authenticating as an admin user.
System Level Web Root
- the default system document root is still found at -
The files are shared in the filing system at -
User Level Root
The other web root directory which is missing by default is the '~/Sites' folder in the User account. This takes a bit longer to set up but some users are very accustomed to using it.
You need to make a 'Sites' folder at the root level of your account and then it will work. Once you make the Sites folder you will notice that it has a unique icon which is a throwback from a few versions older. Make that folder before you set up the user configuration file described next.
You have to make a few additional tweaks to get the ~/Sites folder back up and running.
Add a “username.conf” filed under:
If you don’t already have one (very likely), then create one named by the short username of the account with the suffix .conf, its location and permissions/ownership is best tackled by using the Terminal, the text editor 'nano' would be the best tool to deal with this.
If you would rather edit config files in a text editor as an app I would suggest text editor like the free BBEdit which allows you to open hidden system files.
Launch Terminal, (Applications/Utilities), and follow the commands below, first one gets you to the right spot, 2nd one opens the text editor on the command line (swap 'username' with your account's shortname, if you don't know your account shortname type 'whoami' the Terminal prompt):
Then add the content below swapping in your 'username' in the code below, there is a slightly different user directive for Big Sur and Catalina, make sure 'Require host localhost' is used:
Permissions on the file should be:
If not, you need to change it...
Open the main httpd.conf and allow some modules:
And make sure these modules are uncommented (the first 2 should already be on a clean install):
While you have this file open also to get php running, uncomment the below ... (Mentioned also in the PHP part of the article).
And also uncomment this configuration file also in httpd.conf - which allows user home directories.
Save all your changes (Control + O in nano)
Then open another Apache config file and uncomment another file:
Save all your changes (Control + O in nano)
Restart Apache for the new file to be read:
Then this user level document root will be viewable at:
You should only see a directory tree like structure if the folder is empty.
Override .htaccess and allow URL Rewrites
If you are going to use the web serving document root at /Library/WebServer/Documents it is a good idea to allow any .htaccess files used to override the default settings - this can be accomplished by editing the httpd.conf file at line 217 and setting the AllowOverride to All and then restart Apache. This is already taken care of at the Sites level webroot by following the previous step.
Also while here allow URL rewrites so your permalinks look clean, not ugly.
Uncomment in httpd.conf - should be uncommented on a clean install.
PHP 7.3.24 is loaded in this version of macOS Big Sur and needs to be turned on by uncommenting a line in the httpd.conf file.
Use 'control' + 'w' to search within nano and search for 'php' this will land you on the right line then uncomment the line (remove the #):
Write out and Save using the nano shortcut keys at the bottom 'control o' and 'control x'
Reload Apache to kick in
To see and test PHP, create a file name it 'phpinfo.php' and file it in your document root with the contents below, then view it in a browser.
Here you will see that Apple are not intending on bundling PHP in the macOS in the future, perhaps with the next incarnation of the OS, but for now it's working albeit not version 7.4. However you can use a Homebrew PHP solution that allows for any PHP version to be used.
MySQL doesn't come pre-loaded with macOS Big Sur and needs to be dowloaded from the MySQL site.
The latest version of MySQL 8.0.23 does work with the latest release of macOS.
Use the macOS 10.15 (x86, 64-bit), DMG Archive version (works on macOS Big Sur).
If you are upgrading from a previous macOS and have an older MySQL version you do not have to update it.
Also if you have a clean install and want the earlier MySQL version 5.7, you can still get this from the MySQL site - from the 'Looking for previous GA versions' link. (MySQL 8 is relatively new and not in many production set ups)
One thing with MySQL upgrades, always take a data dump of your database in case things go south and before you upgrade to macOS Catalina make sure your MySQL Server is not running.
When downloading you don’t have to sign up, look for » No thanks, just start mydownload - go straight to the download.
Once downloaded open the .dmg and run the installer.
During the MySQL process you are prompted to choose between strong and legacy password encryptions, since version 8 is entirely new, some software like phpMyAdmin can't connect with the newer encryptions - so if you are going to use a GUI wrapper like phpMyadmin I suggest you stick to legacy.
Then add a password for the MySQL root user.
Add Mysql to your path
After installation, in order to use MySQL commands without typing the full path to the commands you need to add the mysql directory to your shell path, (optional step) this is done in your Zsh shell profile “.zshrc” file in your home directory (previous shells were bash), if you don’t have that file just create it using vi or nano:
The first command brings you to your home directory and opens the .zsh file or creates a new one if it doesn’t exist, then add in the line above which adds the MySQL binary path to commands that you can run. Exit the file with type “control + x” and when prompted to save the change by typing “y”. The last thing to do here is to reload the shell for the above to work straight away.
Change the MySQL root password
(This section is left in for reference - in previous macOS MySQL packages the password set during the installation process would fail - hence the info below. This newer version, however, seems to work).
Note that this is not the same as the root or admin password of macOS - this is a unique password for the MySQL root user.
Start it in safe mode:
This will be an ongoing command until the process is finished so open another shell/terminal window, and log in without a password as root:
Change the lowercase 'MyNewPass' to what you want - and keep the single quotes.
You can then start the MySQL server from the System Preferences adds to the last row or via the command line.
The new MySQL system preference also has the uninstall feature - useful if you've installed it with a security encryption that's not working for you and want to try the other one. You can also see the paths to the config and data sources of MySQL in the configuration tab.
Or to Command line start MySQL.
To find the MySQL version from the terminal, type at the prompt:
This also puts you into a shell interactive dialogue with MySQL, type q to exit.
Fix the 2002 MySQL Socket error
Fix the looming 2002 socket error - which is linking where MySQL places the socket and where macOS thinks it should be, MySQL puts it in /tmp and macOS looks for it in /var/mysql the socket is a type of file that allows MySQL client/server communication.
Mysql Mac Os X
First fix the 2002 socket error if you haven't done so from the MySQL section-
Download phpMyAdmin, the zip English package will suit a lot of users, then unzip it and move the folder with its contents into the document root level renaming folder to 'phpmyadmin'.
Make the config folder
Change the permissions
Find Mysql Path Mac
Run the set up in the browser
http://localhost/~username/phpmyadmin/setup/ or http://localhost/phpmyadmin/setup/
You need to create a new localhost mysql server connection, click new server.
Switch to the Authentication tab and set the local MySQL root user and the password.
Add in the username “root” (maybe already populated, add in the password that you set up earlier for the MySQL root user set up, click on save and you are returned to the previous screen.
(This is not the macOS Admin or root password - it is the MySQL root user)
Now going to http://localhost/~username/phpmyadmin/ will now allow you to interact with your MySQL databases.
To run a website with no permission issues it is best to set the web root and its contents to be writeable by all since it's a local development it shouldn't be a security issue.
Mamp Mysql Path Mac
Let's say that you have a site in the User Sites folder at the following location ~/Sites/testsite you would set it to be writeable like so:
If you are concerned about security then instead of making it world writeable you can set the owner to be Apache _www but when working on files you would have to authenticate more as admin you are 'not' the owner, you would do this like so:
This will set the contents recursively to be owned by the Apache user.
If you had the website stored at the System level Document root at say /Library/WebServer/Documents/testsite then it would have to be the latter:
Another more straightforward way to do this if you have a one user workstation is to change the Apache web user from _www to your account.
That's it! You now have the native AMP stack running on top of macOS Big Sur or Catalina.
To set up vritual hosts aka vhosts on Apache check the guide here.
Mysql Mac Download
If you are a WordPress user and want a smooth lean local development environment - also worth checking out is Laravel Valet which runs on top of macOS - check out my Valet WordPress Guide on macOS.